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The Statutory City of Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, the Moravian metropolis and the centre of the south Moravian region. Its population totals 387,277 (according to the 2011 census). It covers an area of 230 km2.
The city is located in an area with the difference in altitudes between 190 – 479 m a.s.l, the average above-sea level is set at 227 m a.s.l. The historic city centre is partly situated in the flood plain along the northern stretches of the Dyje-Svratka Vale. The Brno highlands surrounding the city in the north in a horse-shoe shaped formation are the continuation of the Českomoravská vrchovina highlands in the northern and western parts of the city. The Drahanská vrchovina highlands extend towards the north-eastern areas of the city, along with its southern part, Moravian Karst, protected landscape area. The central and southern part of the city is situated in a warm climate zone; the northern part is within an area with mildly warm climate. The terrain follows water courses in closed basins (Bystrcká, Žabovřeská, Pisárecká, Maloměřická), which are not well aired. In the southern part of the city the valleys open up and gradually into a flatland open towards the south-east. In the closed basins there is a higher frequency of inversions and ground-level fogs, which are often multiplied by the presence of the water courses. The prevailing air flow in the city is north-western, which is more favourable for the pollutant dispersion. During the colder times of the year, the heating season, there is unfavourable influence of dominant calm or southern or south-eastern winds at a velocity up to 2 m.s-1. Air temperatures are affected by the concentration of built-up areas, ground relief, particularly in the northern, hillier part of the city and the tendency to inversions and ground-level fogs in the closed basins and flood plains of the rivers.
The city as a whole is situated in a mild rain shadow of the Českomoravská vrchovina highlands. The maximum rain precipitation is outside the heating season, in June - August. Other insignificant maxima are in October and November. During the main months of the heating season, i.e. from December to March, the rainfall in this area is 20 – 22% on average. As the rainfall has a great influence on the removal of pollutants from the air, the rainfall distribution in the city of Brno is unfavourable, seen from this point of view.
The Statutory City is a centre of education, health care, science and research, but also industry and transport. In the city there are approx. 1100 sources of air pollution (previously classified as middle-size, large, and extra large sources) and an unspecified number of small incinerating and other small sources of air pollution (formerly „small sources“). The Statutory City of Brno is an important transport hub connecting roads and railways. The central part of the city, the corridors of the small and large ring roads and some other roads in the city are heavy traffic roads – up to 48,000 vehicles/day, the motorway sections in the urban area face up to 70,000 vehicles/day. The air traffic at the international airport in Brno – Tuřany develops, too (regular flights to several destinations + a large number of charter and one-off flights = approx. 500,0000 passengers).
In terms of air quality, the area of the Statutory City of Brno is, in accordance with the wording of Act No. 86/2002 Coll. , defined as a separate „Agglomeration Brno“.
The history of air pollution monitoring in the Statutory City of Brno dates back to 1993, when the city representatives decided to establish a network of air pollution monitoring stations in the city. Between 1994 – 1995, the supplier of the system was selected, between 1996 – 1997 the system was gradually put into service. Once in service, it consisted of six stationary monitoring stations, a mobile measurement vehicle and a measurement trailer for this vehicle. The stationary station as well as the vehicles have been in automatic mode since the beginning. Data generated by the stationary stations are transferred by an on-line radio network to the central laboratory where it is processed.
The stationary stations were located in Černá Pole – Arboretum, Židenice – Svatoplukova, Bohunice – Lány st., Brno-střed – Mendlovo sq., Zvonařka and the junction of Kounicova-Kotlářská. The measurement vehicle and the measurement trailer were used occasionally during ad-hoc measurements as required by the Environmental Department of the Brno City Municipality and the city districts. Over the years, the number of the stationary stations was been partly reduced. The station at Mendlovo sq. was relocated in 1998 to the premises of VUT in Brno, Faculty of Chemistry (Purkyňova st.), where it is used for the purposes of the university. In 2004, based on a request of the director of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (ČHMÚ) in Prague, the station at the junction of Kotlářská-Kounicova was handed over to be operated by the Brno branch office of this institute. This station is presently a part of the system of Automated Air Pollution monitoring in the CR (AIM ČR) as a station operated by the ČHMÚ, called “Brno-střed”. The mobile trailer has been measuring continuously since 1998 as a stationary automatic station in the locality of Brno-Pisárky (parking lot in front of the 9th gate of BVV) being marked “Brno – Výstaviště”. In 2012, the monitoring station Brno – Arboretum (premises of the Arboretum of MZLU in Černá Pole, Tř. gen. Píky) was relocated at the request of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute to a more suitable locality and therefore it is presently classified as a background, municipal monitoring station. Other stationary automatic stations Svatoplukova (barracks of the Army of the CR), Zvonařka (area of the central bus station Zvonařka in front of the building at Opuštěná 2) and Lány (premises of the former secondary agricultural school at Lány, Bohunice) operate at the original locations.
Over the years, the equipment of some of the stations was supplemented by new measuring instrument and the measured parameters were reconfigured:
o 1998 – measurement was supplemented by O3 measurement– tropospheric ozone at the Výstaviště (since 2002, Zvonařka) and Arboretum stations
o 2002 – measurement of PM10 – particle matter, fraction 10 mm
o 2007 – measurement of PM1 and PM2,5 – particle matter, fractions 1 and 2,5 mm at the Lány (in 2007 – 2008, Výstaviště station), Svatoplukova and Zvonařka stations
o 2012 – terminated O3 measurement at the Arboretum station
o 2013 – upgrade of the air pollution monitoring system in the Statutory City of Brno using a grant provided by the Operational Programme Environment consisting in the upgrade of IT equipment, station equipment (weather poles), weather sensors (thermometers/hygrometers and wind gauges) and measuring instruments (NO-NO2-NOx, SO2, CO and O3 analysers).
For the present status of the measuring parameters at the automatic stationary station see the link to the „Overview of the parameters measured at the air pollution monitoring station system of the Statutory City of Brno“.
The automatic stationary stations of the air pollution monitoring system of the Statutory City of Brno were incorporated into the nationwide system of air quality monitoring – the Automated air pollution monitoring of the CR on 1st January 2007, following an audit conducted by the administrator of the Information air quality system (ISKO). After checking all the data measured at the stations of the Statutory City of Brno by the administrator of the ISKO, the data generated by these stations was included in this system retrospectively from 1st January 2000.
The measurement vehicle is still used for mobile measurements to handle claims about the quality of air in different city districts and according to the requirements of the city district offices.
The servicing of the stations, calibration of the analysers and the maintenance of the stations are performed in accordance with the Quality Handbook approved by the MoE of the CR , which is developed to address air pollution monitoring in the Statutory City of Brno. The company SITA Facility a.s., Praha, ensuring the operation of the air pollution monitoring for the Statutory City of Brno based on a contract following a tendering procedure holds, in accordance with Act No. 201/2012 Sb., the Air Protection Act, a certificate granted by the MoE of the CR on the authorisation to measure air pollution. Gas analysers (SO2, NO-NO2-NOx, CO) are calibrated within determined time intervals in the accredited laboratory of the ČHMÚ using certified calibration bottles with calibrated gases and O3 analysers, dust counters and measuring instruments metering meteo parameters, which are, within prescribed time-limits, submitted for calibration and service checks to organisations accredited to perform such work.
The quality of measurements performed by the measurement vehicle is checked on a yearly basis during comparative measurements of mobile measurement vehicles organised by Zdravotní ústav Praha in various cities of the Czech Republic. This comparative measurement includes verification and calibration of the measuring systems of the individual mobile vehicles.
Imission monitoring (C) 2010